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Students Corner




There are of 30 well known types of herbs approximately 12 are generally used. Herbs may be used fresh but usually dried to ensure continues supply throughout the year. The leaves contain volatile oils which impart flavour and smell. Herbs have no food value but are important from nutritive point of view in adding digestion as they stimulate flow of gastric juices.


Aromatic herb originating in India name is derived from Greek meaning basilikos i.e. royal .The leaves have a strong flavor of jasmine and lemon. Leaves are used in raw or cooked particularly tomato dishes as also salads, stuffing’s.


Bay leaves are leaves of the bay laurel or sweet bay trees or shrubs. They may be fresh or dried and are used for flavoring soups, sauces, staves fish etc. they form an important part of the Bouquet-garni.


An aromatic plant originating from central Asia but now common throughout Europe, It is best when used in fresh form. It aroma is very volatile and care must be taken to avoid excessive cooking or heating. It is used complement to sauces. In addition to common chervil there in curl chervil


A vegetable grown for its roots, stems, leaves and seeds. Several varieties of cultivated celery are grown for their while fleshy stalks. It yields 20cals per 100g. . The stalks are eaten raw with salt, in mixed salads. The leaves fresher dried can serve as garnish for salads, soups sauces. Celery salt in extracted from dried celeriac roots a used as a condiment for tom juice.


An alliaceous plant related to spring onion, that produces small elongated bulbs and clumps of tubular green leaves. The leaves of the plant are used either fresh or dried for flavouring soups and salads. It has delicate onion flavour. E.g. Vichyssoise - cold leek and potato flavored soup gar and chives.


Dill leaves are used as a culinary herb and seeds are used in cooking in North Africa the USSR and Scandinavia. Dill in also used to make an aromatic vinegar and flavouring for various pickles.


An aromatic umbelliferous plant of Mediterranean region. It grows to a height of 1.2—1.5 m. The feathery leaves and seeds have a slight aniseed flavour. The leaves are also used or a garnish the bulb can be used raw in salads or it can be cooked.


A herb of which the there are various types the most popular being sweet marjoram and wild marjoram is more commonly known as oregano . Sweet marjoram is one of the most favoured herbs in cookery; it has a strong aromatic scent but a fairly delicate flavour. To avoid losing flavor it is best added at the end of the cooking period. Oregano has a much more pungent flavour than marjoram and is popular in Greece and Italian cookery. When dried, both sweet and wild marjoram become much stronger in flaovur and should be used sparingly.


There are many varieties of mint. There are over 25 varieties of mint. Same of them are as follows:
1) Water mint
2) Horse mint
3) Cologne mint
4) Japanese mint
5) Pepper mint
6) Garden mint is the most common used leaves are used to flavour sauces,
Salads and to season roast lamb. Mint cab be used either fresh / dried min will retain its flavour for 02 years if stored in airtight containers.


An aromatic shrub native to Mediterranean whose evergreen leaves are used either fresh / dried as they have a very pungent taste, they are need for flavouring . Name comes form Latin word Rosmmarinus . Combines well with veal, also used in some tomato soacues. In addition a sprig of rosemary gives flavour to milk used for desert.


This plant has a bright green attractive leaf. It is best used fresh, particularly when decorating chaud froid dishes. Tarragon has a pleasant flavour and is used in sauces; one well known e.g. is sauce Béarnaise.


Sage is strong bitter, pungent herb which aids in digestion of rich fatty meats and is therefore used for shiffing s. The different varieties of sage are 1) Garden sage 2) Provengale sage. 3) Catalonian Sage 4) Clary sage.


Spices are natural products obtained from fruits, seeds, roots, flowers or the bark of a number of different trees or shrubs. They contain oils which aid digestion by stimulating the gastric juices. As spices are concentrated in flavour, they should be used sparingly; otherwise they can make the food unpalatable. Most spices are grown in India, Africa, W. Indies and Far East.


This is the berry of ‘Eugenia Pimenta’ a small tree grown in the West Indies .The berries are gathered when green and unripe and dried in the sun. These berries combine flavour of cloves, nutmeg and cinnamon Hence it is called allspice. It is also known as ‘Jamaica Pepper’.


The sun dried flower bud of the clove tree used since ancient times as a spice. Brown and hard, loves are abront ½ in long with a head 1/6 in diameter. The word is taken from the French word ‘Clou’ meaning nail which describes its shape.
Cloves has medicinal properties also .The oil of cloves is used in dentistry to soothe headaches and its antiseptic properties are well known cloves are used in both Indian and western dishes both sweet and savory e.g. pulaows , onions studded with cloves is used in preparation of Béchamel sauce , braised and boiled meat dishes , fruit salads etc.


These are the only known cases of two different spices from the same fruit. What we call nutmeg is the seed of a fruit which resembles an apricot. This set is protected by a thin outer covering which is dried to obtain mace. Although the aroma is similar for N&M, separate used exist for both. When buying nutmegs choose those which are round, compact of oily appearance and heavy for thin size.


An herbaceous plant originating from the Mediterranean region. Mustard seeds are the seeds the plant and mustard powder is the powder of the seeds. There are 3 varieties of mustard.
1) Black Mustard
2) Brown Mustard
3) White Mustard

When mustard is used a a spice, it is used whole e.g. Seeds. When seeds are powdered it becomes a condiment. The pungency of mustard is brought water. In India it is used whole for tempering dishes and in pickles. It is also an important ingredient in certain masalas e.g. indaloo. Mustard when used as a condiment can be flavoured in different ways e.g. with tarragon, garlic, fine herbs, paprika etc. The best known and most widely used mustard is DIJON MUSTRD is produced in the dijon region of France .


A spice obtained from the bark of several topical trees. The bark is removed dried and rolled up to make up a tube fawn or dark brown in colour . Popular varieties of cinnamon are from and Shrilanks and chine. The best cinnamon should be as thin as paper. It has a fragrant odour and its taste is pleasant and aromatic in Frace, it is chiefly used to flavor desserts . In Indian and Far East uses are much more numerous.


This is a fruit of a need like plant grown chiefly along the malabar coast of india . The fruit is a small pod and seeds within pro have a strong sweetish flavour. Cardamom finds a variety of uses in Indian cookery e.g. In pulaos, rich gravies. Masalas powdered car cardamom is use din cakes, puddings etc.


A condiment derived from the pepper plant (Piper nigrum) a climbing vine native to India, jara.The pepper is the fruit of the plant. Peppercorns harvested at various stages of maturity provide the full.

Types of Pepper

 - Black Very strong and pungent
 - Green Unripe peppercorns sold dried or pickled less pungent and more fruity
 - White Ripe with enter husk removed by rubbing in salt water
 - Cayenne Dried fruits of capsicum plant grown in cayenne Islands

Pepper is sold either whole (i.e. pepper corns) or ground. Ground Pepper quickly loses its flavour and aroma.

Whole pepper corns are used in court- bouillons, marinades, pates etc. Crushed pepper is used for grilled meats, forcemeats hashes etc.


The plant is called ‘corianderum satium’ and is related to the parsley family. The seeds of the plant are used as a spice. Coriander leaves are commonly known as drab parsley or chinese parsley in France and are used especially for garnishing. it can also be used in preparation of certain meat dishes e.g. Nilgiri khorma.


The aromatic root of a plant growing in India and West Indies sold in root form and as powder. Turmeric is member of ginger family fruit has a different flavor. It is used extensively in Indian cookery for imparting colour and flavour to curries.


This is the tuberous root of plant and is one of the few species that grow underground.The most common use of ginger is to make Masalas, drinks e.g. Singer ter and in confectionery such as ginerbiscuitts , cookies etc. When selecting singer points to note are it should be free dirt, skin should be smooth and of light brown colour and should give off the flavoner when burnished slightly


This is a herbs of the caraway type producing seeds of a pleasant small and flavour which are very popular. The seeds come form the fruit of the cumin plant. Added to curry powder or fried whole for seasoning or tempering

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