HERBS AND SPICES
There are of 30 well known types of
herbs approximately 12 are generally used. Herbs may be used fresh but
usually dried to ensure continues supply throughout the year. The
leaves contain volatile oils which impart flavour and smell. Herbs
have no food value but are important from nutritive point of view in
adding digestion as they stimulate flow of gastric juices.
Aromatic herb originating in India name
is derived from Greek meaning basilikos i.e. royal .The leaves have a
strong flavor of jasmine and lemon. Leaves are used in raw or cooked
particularly tomato dishes as also salads, stuffing’s.
BAYLEAF (TEJ PATTA)
Bay leaves are leaves of the bay laurel
or sweet bay trees or shrubs. They may be fresh or dried and are used
for flavoring soups, sauces, staves fish etc. they form an important
part of the Bouquet-garni.
An aromatic plant originating from
central Asia but now common throughout Europe, It is best when used in
fresh form. It aroma is very volatile and care must be taken to avoid
excessive cooking or heating. It is used complement to sauces. In
addition to common chervil there in curl chervil
A vegetable grown for its roots, stems,
leaves and seeds. Several varieties of cultivated celery are grown for
their while fleshy stalks. It yields 20cals per 100g. . The stalks are
eaten raw with salt, in mixed salads. The leaves fresher dried can
serve as garnish for salads, soups sauces. Celery salt in extracted
from dried celeriac roots a used as a condiment for tom juice.
CHIVE (PIC AVAILABLE)
An alliaceous plant related to spring
onion, that produces small elongated bulbs and clumps of tubular green
leaves. The leaves of the plant are used either fresh or dried for
flavouring soups and salads. It has delicate onion flavour. E.g.
Vichyssoise - cold leek and potato flavored soup gar and chives.
Dill leaves are used as a culinary herb
and seeds are used in cooking in North Africa the USSR and
Scandinavia. Dill in also used to make an aromatic vinegar and
flavouring for various pickles.
An aromatic umbelliferous plant of
Mediterranean region. It grows to a height of 1.2—1.5 m. The feathery
leaves and seeds have a slight aniseed flavour. The leaves are also
used or a garnish the bulb can be used raw in salads or it can be
A herb of which the there are various
types the most popular being sweet marjoram and wild marjoram is more
commonly known as oregano . Sweet marjoram is one of the most favoured
herbs in cookery; it has a strong aromatic scent but a fairly delicate
flavour. To avoid losing flavor it is best added at the end of the
cooking period. Oregano has a much more pungent flavour than marjoram
and is popular in Greece and Italian cookery. When dried, both sweet
and wild marjoram become much stronger in flaovur and should be used
There are many varieties of mint. There
are over 25 varieties of mint. Same of them are as follows:
1) Water mint
2) Horse mint
3) Cologne mint
4) Japanese mint
5) Pepper mint
6) Garden mint is the most common used leaves are used to flavour
Salads and to season roast lamb. Mint cab be used either fresh / dried
min will retain its flavour for 02 years if stored in airtight
An aromatic shrub native to
Mediterranean whose evergreen leaves are used either fresh / dried as
they have a very pungent taste, they are need for flavouring . Name
comes form Latin word Rosmmarinus . Combines well with veal, also used
in some tomato soacues. In addition a sprig of rosemary gives flavour
to milk used for desert.
This plant has a bright green
attractive leaf. It is best used fresh, particularly when decorating
chaud froid dishes. Tarragon has a pleasant flavour and is used in
sauces; one well known e.g. is sauce Béarnaise.
Sage is strong bitter, pungent herb
which aids in digestion of rich fatty meats and is therefore used for
shiffing s. The different varieties of sage are 1) Garden sage 2)
Provengale sage. 3) Catalonian Sage 4) Clary sage.
Spices are natural products obtained
from fruits, seeds, roots, flowers or the bark of a number of
different trees or shrubs. They contain oils which aid digestion by
stimulating the gastric juices. As spices are concentrated in flavour,
they should be used sparingly; otherwise they can make the food
unpalatable. Most spices are grown in India, Africa, W. Indies and Far
This is the berry of ‘Eugenia Pimenta’
a small tree grown in the West Indies .The berries are gathered when
green and unripe and dried in the sun. These berries combine flavour
of cloves, nutmeg and cinnamon Hence it is called allspice. It is also
known as ‘Jamaica Pepper’.
The sun dried flower bud of the clove
tree used since ancient times as a spice. Brown and hard, loves are
abront ½ in long with a head 1/6 in diameter. The word is taken from
the French word ‘Clou’ meaning nail which describes its shape.
Cloves has medicinal properties also .The oil of cloves is used in
dentistry to soothe headaches and its antiseptic properties are well
known cloves are used in both Indian and western dishes both sweet and
savory e.g. pulaows , onions studded with cloves is used in
preparation of Béchamel sauce , braised and boiled meat dishes , fruit
NUTMEG AND MACE (JAIPHAL)
These are the only known cases of two
different spices from the same fruit. What we call nutmeg is the seed
of a fruit which resembles an apricot. This set is protected by a thin
outer covering which is dried to obtain mace. Although the aroma is
similar for N&M, separate used exist for both. When buying nutmegs
choose those which are round, compact of oily appearance and heavy for
An herbaceous plant originating from
the Mediterranean region. Mustard seeds are the seeds the plant and
mustard powder is the powder of the seeds. There are 3 varieties of
1) Black Mustard
2) Brown Mustard
3) White Mustard
When mustard is used a a spice, it is used whole e.g. Seeds. When
seeds are powdered it becomes a condiment. The pungency of mustard is
brought water. In India it is used whole for tempering dishes and in
pickles. It is also an important ingredient in certain masalas e.g.
indaloo. Mustard when used as a condiment can be flavoured in
different ways e.g. with tarragon, garlic, fine herbs, paprika etc.
The best known and most widely used mustard is DIJON MUSTRD is
produced in the dijon region of France .
A spice obtained from the bark of
several topical trees. The bark is removed dried and rolled up to make
up a tube fawn or dark brown in colour . Popular varieties of cinnamon
are from and Shrilanks and chine. The best cinnamon should be as thin
as paper. It has a fragrant odour and its taste is pleasant and
aromatic in Frace, it is chiefly used to flavor desserts . In Indian
and Far East uses are much more numerous.
This is a fruit of a need like plant
grown chiefly along the malabar coast of india . The fruit is a small
pod and seeds within pro have a strong sweetish flavour. Cardamom
finds a variety of uses in Indian cookery e.g. In pulaos, rich
gravies. Masalas powdered car cardamom is use din cakes, puddings etc.
A condiment derived from the pepper
plant (Piper nigrum) a climbing vine native to India, jara.The pepper
is the fruit of the plant. Peppercorns harvested at various stages of
maturity provide the full.
Types of Pepper
- Black Very strong and pungent
- Green Unripe peppercorns sold dried or pickled less pungent and more
- White Ripe with enter husk removed by rubbing in salt water
- Cayenne Dried fruits of capsicum plant grown in cayenne Islands
Pepper is sold either whole (i.e. pepper corns) or ground. Ground
Pepper quickly loses its flavour and aroma.
PEPPER IN COOKING
Whole pepper corns are used in court- bouillons, marinades, pates etc.
Crushed pepper is used for grilled meats, forcemeats hashes etc.
The plant is called ‘corianderum satium’
and is related to the parsley family. The seeds of the plant are used
as a spice. Coriander leaves are commonly known as drab parsley or
chinese parsley in France and are used especially for garnishing. it
can also be used in preparation of certain meat dishes e.g. Nilgiri
The aromatic root of a plant growing in
India and West Indies sold in root form and as powder. Turmeric is
member of ginger family fruit has a different flavor. It is used
extensively in Indian cookery for imparting colour and flavour to
This is the tuberous root of plant and
is one of the few species that grow underground.The most common use of
ginger is to make Masalas, drinks e.g. Singer ter and in confectionery
such as ginerbiscuitts , cookies etc. When selecting singer points to
note are it should be free dirt, skin should be smooth and of light
brown colour and should give off the flavoner when burnished slightly
CUMIN SEEDS (JEERA SEEDS)
This is a herbs of the caraway type
producing seeds of a pleasant small and flavour which are very
popular. The seeds come form the fruit of the cumin plant. Added to
curry powder or fried whole for seasoning or tempering